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The major purpose of this study was to explore the metacognitive orientations of science students at the secondary level of education. To achieve this, three research questions and hypotheses were raised, answered and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The design of the study was survey and samples consisted of 36 schools and 705 science students drawn from Delta state, Nigeria. The instrument used for data collection was Self-Efficacy and Metacognitive Learning Inventory Science (SEMLI-S). The major findings of the study indicated that: the metacognitive orientations scores of all the science students in all the groups and sub-scales of SEMLI-S fell within the rating of Half of the time used; all the science students were significantly varied in orientation in all the sub-scales of SEMLI-S; higher level students significantly outscored the lower level students on metacognitive orientations in all the sub-scales of the SEMLI-S; males significantly outscored the females on metacognitive orientations on Learning Risks Awareness and Control of Concentration. It was concluded that the knowledge of students' metacognitive orientations could help to improve classroom practices through the provision of clues on how students learn science and subsequent intervention of teachers when and where necessary.
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